TRUE HISTORY, the “Religion of Peace” Part Two "THE HISTORY"

THE HISTORY

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0610

Mohammed, in a cave on Mt. Hira, hears the angel Gabriel tell him that Allah is the only true God.

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0613

Muhammad's first public preaching of Islam at Mt. Hira; gets few converts.

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0622

Muhammad immigrates from Mecca to Medina, which was then called Yathrib, gets
more converts.

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0622

Muhammad and Muslims begin the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula.

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0623

Battle of Waddan.

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0623

Battle of Safwan.

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0623

Battle of Dul-'Ashir.

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0624

Muhammad and Muslim converts begin raids on caravans to fund the movement.

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0624

Zakat (the giving of Alms) becomes mandatory.

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0624

Battle of Badr.

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0624

Battle of Bani Salim.

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0624

Battle of Eid-ul-Fitr and Zakat-ul-Fitr.

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0624

Battle of Bani Qainuqa'.

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0624

Battle of Sawiq.

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0624

Battle of Ghatfan.

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0624

Battle of Bahran.

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0625

Battle of Uhud.

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0625

Battle of Humra-ul-Asad.

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0625

Battle of Banu Nudair.

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0625

Battle of Dhatur-Riqa.

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0626

Battle of Badru-Ukhra.

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0626

Battle of Dumatul-Jandal.

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0626

Battle of Banu Mustalaq Nikah.

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0627

Battle of the Trench.

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0627

Battle of Ahzab.

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0627

Battle of Bani Quraiza.

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0627

Battle of Bani Lahyan.

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0627

Battle of Ghaiba.

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0627

Battle of Khaibar.

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0628

Muhammad signs treaty with Quraish.

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0630

Muhammad conquers Mecca.

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0630

Battle of Hunsin.

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0630

Battle of Tabuk.

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0632

Muhammad dies.

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0633

Muslims begin conquest of Syria and Iraq

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0635

Muslims begin the conquest of Persia.

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0635

Arab Muslims capture the city of Damascus from the Byzantines.

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August 20, 0636

Battle of Yarmuk: Following the Muslim capture of Damascus and Edessa, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius organizes a large army which manages to take back control of those cities. However, Byzantine commander, Baänes is soundly defeated by Muslim forces under Khalid ibn Walid in a battle in the valley of the Yarmuk River outside Damascus. This leaves all of Syria open to Arab domination.

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0637

The Arabs occupy the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. By 0651, the entire Persian realm comes under the rule of Islam and continued its westward expansion.

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0637

Conquest of Syria by Muslim forces is complete.

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0637

Jerusalem falls to invading Muslim forces.

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0638

Caliph Umar I enters Jerusalem.

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0639

Muslims begin conquest of Egypt .

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0639

Muslim forces continue conquest of Persia.

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0641

Islam spreads into Egypt. The Catholic Archbishop invites Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors.

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0641

Under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman, Muslims conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.

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0641

Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims conquer the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. According to some accounts, he also has what was left of the Great Library at Alexandria burned the following year.

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0641

Amr ibn al-As creates the first Muslim city in Egypt, al-Fustat, and builds the first mosque in Egypt.

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0644

Muslim leader Caliph Uthman (Umayyad Caliphate) launches invasions to the west into North Africa.

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0649

Muawiya I (Umayyad Caliphate), leads a raid against Cyprus, sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia after a short siege and pillaging the rest of the island.

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0652

Sicily is attacked by Muslims coming out of Ifriqiya (Tunisia), a name later given to the entire continent of Africa.

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0653

Muawiya I, leads a raid against Rhodes, taking the remaining pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, and shipping it back to Syria to be sold as scrap metal.

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0654

Muawiya I, conquers Cyprus and stations a large garrison there. The island remains in Muslim hands until 0966.

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0655

Battle of the Masts: In one of the only Muslim naval victories in the entire history of Islam, Muslim forces under the command of Uthman bin Affan defeat Byzantine forces under Emperor Constant II. The battle takes place off the coast of Lycia and is an important stage in the decline of Byzantine power.

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0661

Muawiya I, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, becomes the caliph and moves the capital from Mecca to Damascus until 0680.

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0661

Persia yields to the Abbasid Caliphate, whose rule lasted until 0820.

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0661

The Fertile Crescent falls to the Umayyad Caliphate, whose rule lasts until 1258

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0862

Egypt falls to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 0868.

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0667

Sicily is again attacked by Muslims coming out of Tunisia.

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0668

First Siege of Constantinople: This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months. The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with Greek Fire, a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs. It burnes through ships, shields, and flesh and it could not be put out once it started. Muawiyah I, send emissaries to Byzantine Emperor Constans to beg him to let the survivors return home unimpeded, a request that is granted in exchange for a yearly tribute of 3,000 pieces of gold, fifty slaves, and fifty Arab horses.

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0669

The Muslim conquest reaches to Morocco in North Africa. The region would be ruled by both the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates until 0800.

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0672

Muslims under Mauwiya I (Umayyad caliphate), capture the island of Rhodes.

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0674

Muslim Arab conquest reaches the Indus River in Pakistan and India.

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0677

Muslims send a large fleet against Constantinople in an effort to finally break the city, but they are defeated so badly through the Byzantine use of Greek Fire that they are forced to pay an indemnity to the Emperor.

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0692

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is completed on the site of the Temple Mount, in keeping with what now is the tradition of building a Mosque on the site of conquered territory.

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0698

Muslims push further westward and capture Carthage in North Africa.

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0700

Muslims from the small island of Pamntelleria continue to attack the island of Sicily.

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0711

With the further conquest of Egypt and North Africa, Muslims begin to push out into Spain. Conquered territory now includes all of the Persian empire and most of the old Roman world, now under Islamic rule.

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April 0711

Tariq ibn Malik, a Berber officer, crosses the strait separating Africa and Europe with a group of Muslims and enters Spain (al-Andalus, as the Muslims called it). The first stop in the Muslim conquest of Spain is at the foot of a mountain that comes to be called Jabel Tarik, the Mountain of Tarik. Today it is known as Gibraltar. At one time the Berbers had been Christians but “converted” to Islam after the Arab conquest of North Africa.

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0711

Muslims begin the conquest of Sindh in Afghanistan.

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July 19, 0711

Battle of Guadalete: Tariq ibn Ziyad kills King Rodrigo (or Roderic), Visigoth ruler of Spain, at the Guadalete River in the south of the Iberian peninsula. Tariq ibn Ziyad had landed at Gibraltar with 7,000 Muslims at the invitation of heirs of the late Visigoth King Witica (Witiza) who wanted to get rid of Rodrigo (this group includes Oppas, the bishop of Toledo and primate of all Spain, who happens to be the brother of the late king Witica). Ziyad, however, betrays them, and refuses to turn control of the region back over to the heirs of Witica. Almost the entire Iberian peninsula would come under Islamic control by 0718.

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0712

Muslim governor of Northern Africa Musa ibn Nusayr follows Tariq ibn Ziyad with an army of 18,000 as reinforcements for the conquest of Andalusia. Musa's father had been a Catholic Yemenite studying to be a priest in Iraq when he was captured in Iraq by Khalid, the "Sword of Islam," and forced to choose between conversion or death. The invasion of Iraq had been one of the last military orders given by Muhammed before his death.

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0715

Most all of Spain is in Muslim hands. The Muslim conquest of Spain only took around three years but the Christian reconquest would require around 460 years (it might have gone faster had the various Christian kingdoms not been at each other' throats much of the time). Musa's son, Abd el-Aziz, is left in charge and makes his capital the city of Seville, where he married Egilona, widow of king Rodrigo. Caliph Suleiman, a paranoid ruler, would have el-Aziz assassinated and sends Musa into exile in his native Yemen village to live out his days as a beggar.

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0716

Lisbon is captured by Muslims.

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0717

The capital of Muslim holdings in Spain (Andalusia) is moved from the city of Seville and Cordova becomes the seat of power and the capital city.

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August 15, 0717

Second Siege of Constantinople: Taking advantage of civil unrest in the Byzantine Empire, Caliph Sulieman sends 120,000 Muslims under the command of his brother, Moslemah, to launch the second siege of Constantinople. Another force of around 100,000 Muslims with 1,800 galleys soon arrives from Syria and Egypt to assist, most of which are quickly destroyed with Greek Fire. That winter, the Muslims outside Constantinople begin to starve, they also begin to freeze to death. Even the Bulgarians, usually hostile to the Byzantines, send a force to destroy Muslim reinforcements marching from Adrianopolis.

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August 15, 0718

Muslims abandon their second siege of Constantinople. Their failure here leads to the weakening of the Umayyad government, in part because of the heavy losses. It is estimated that of the 200,000 soldiers who besieged Constantinople, only around 30,000 made it home. Although the Byzantine Empire also sustains heavily casualties and loses most its territory south of the Taurus Mountains, by holding the line here they prevent a disorganized and militarily inferior Europe from having to confront a Muslim invasion along the shortest possible route. The Arabic invasion of Europe must now proceed along the longer path across northern Africa and into Spain, a route which prevents quick reinforcement and ultimately proves ineffective.

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0719

Muslims attack Septimania in southern France, once home and bose of operations for Rome's Seventh Legion. Muslims now become established in the region known as Languedoc, the area later known as the center of the Cathar heresy.

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July 09, 0721

The Muslim army under Al-Semah that had crossed the Pyrenees is defeated by the Franks near Toulouse. Al-Semah is killed and his remaining forces, which had previously conquered Narbonne, are forced back across the Pyrenees into Spain

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0722

Battle of Covadonga: Pelayo, defeats a Muslim army at Alcama near Covadonga, the first real victory over the Muslims in the Reconquista

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0724

Hisham becomes the 10th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces make their deepest incursions into Western Europe.

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0724

Under Ambissa, Emir of Andalusia, Muslim forces attack southern France and capture the cities of Carcassone and Nimes. Primary targets in these and other raids are churches and monasteries where the Muslims take away holy objects and enslave or kill all the clerics.

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0725

Muslim forces occupied Nimes, France.

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0730

Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon.

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October 10, 0732

Battle of Tours: With around 1,500 soldiers, Charles Martel, halts a Muslim force of around 40,000 to 60,000 cavalry under Abd el-Rahman Al Ghafiqi from moving farther into Europe. Many regard this battle as being decisive in that it saved Europe from total Muslim control. The names of Tours, Poitiers, and Charles Martel do not appear in the Arab histories. They list the battle under the name Balat al-Shuhada, the Highway of Martyrs, and is treated as a minor engagement.

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0735

Muslim invaders capture the city of Arles.

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0737

Childebrand, brother of Charles Martel, lays siege to Avignon and drives out the Muslim occupiers. According to some records, all the Muslims in the city are killed.

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0739

After retaking Narbonne, Beziers, Montpellier, and Nimes during the previous couple of years, Childebrand captures Marseille, one of the largest French cities still in Muslim hands.

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0750

The Abbasid Caliphate assumes control of the Islamic world , except Spain, which falls under the control of a descendant of the Umayyad Caliphate. The capital is moved to Baghdad in Iraq, the Abbasid Caliphate lasts until 1258.

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September 0755

Abd al-Rahman of the Umayyad Caliphate flees to Spain to escape the Abbasids and is responsible for creating the "Golden Caliphate" in Spain.

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Comment by ABH-2 on June 11, 2010 at 2:27pm
This is true. However, depending on the fierceness of the battle and the number of Muslim losses, it was not unheard of for the conquered forces to be put to the sword.
Comment by David Silvas on June 11, 2010 at 6:52am
Yes and at each battle the survivors were conscripted into his army increasing its size. They were allowed an equal share of the loot captured, and it was a way for people to get back what they lost when they were defeated.

Bonaparte followed his example in the conquest of Europe.

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